Analyzing environmental poverty alleviation programs using a four-step model: A case study of Ginatilan, Cebu, Philippines

Zosimo O. Membrebe, Jr.1,2,*, John Louis B. Benito3, Jeanette Isabelle V. Loanzon1

Author Affliations

1The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, España, Metro Manila
2School of Management & Information Technology, De La Salle – College of St. Benilde, Taft. Ave, Metro Manila
3College of Liberal Arts, De La Salle University, Taft. Ave, Metro Manila
*[email protected]


One of the most challenging thrusts of the United Nations to achieve Sustainable Development is ending poverty and hunger all over the world. To achieve such, they acknowledged that localizing the goals in different countries is necessary. This study utilized an operationalizing framework to analyze the environmental poverty alleviation programs that could facilitate community development in Ginatilan, Cebu, the municipality rated with the highest poverty incidence in the Municipal level estimates of the Philippine Statistics Authority. This study utilized the Four-Step Model, a framework that was used by Lessmann and Rasuchmayer (2013) to analyze correlate the concept of Sustainable Development and Capability Approach and focused on the natural systems of the said municipality, as it is seen by the residents to be the most beneficial with their current capabilities and functionings (as coined by Amartya Sen). The study found that residents of selected barangays created capabilities or opportunities to (1) harvest the natural resources, (2) have good health, (3) have a stable and accessible water source, and (4) have daily subsistence. On the other hand, under the conditions of their freedom to choose, the residents were able to: (1) have livelihood resources, (2) serve the community, (3) have natural water sources and food harvest, (4) promote tourism, and (5) have protection against calamity. The researchers concluded that for the area to have an acceptable development that is adept to the capabilities and functionings of the residents, they must consider the five achieved functionings of the residents and recommend social, economic, and environmental policies for the sustainability of the municipality’s natural systems and the overall development of Ginatilan.